The department requires that each Ph.D. student do some apprentice teaching before completing the degree. The minimum amount required is equivalent to the duties expected of a half-time teaching assistant for three academic quarters. This teaching includes conducting, with the guidance and support of a supervising professor, discussion sections and related activities in a variety of freshman and sophomore course. Academic credit is granted for the training given under the apprentice teaching program. Most students enrolled in the Literature Department Ph.D. program can expect to teach in one of the college writing programs or in the language or linguistics programs.